Want to know how laparoscopy is done? So just continue your reading in the following paragraphs that we will address everything in this regard.
In the current era of medicine, technological advances have provided significant improvements in surgical procedures, offering less invasive options with reduced recovery time.
Among such innovations, laparoscopy stands out. Therefore, in this article, we will explore in detail how laparoscopy is performed.
What is laparoscopy?
Derived from the Greek word “laparos” meaning abdomen, laparoscopy originally referred to a method of viewing the inside of the abdomen.
However, medical and technological developments have transformed this term, which today is synonymous with a minimally invasive surgical procedure, widely adopted in gynecological, urological and other specialties, including procedures outside the abdomen.
Notably, the first successful use of this method was for gallbladder removal in 1987, even though there were less advanced attempts from the 1960s onwards.
Today, with advanced technology, laparoscopy is able to access virtually all organs in the human body.
The introduction of a small high-resolution camera at the end of the surgical instrument allowed detailed images of the interior of the body to be transmitted and displayed on video monitors, in addition to being able to be recorded for future analysis.
This modern technique, known as videolaparoscopy, has revolutionized medicine.
Initially used mainly for diagnostic purposes, videolaparoscopy now allows the collection of samples for biopsies and the performance of surgeries that were previously only possible through open procedures, thus demonstrating its transformative potential in medical practice.
How is laparoscopy done?
Laparoscopy is a surgical procedure with distinct characteristics. Typically, the patient is admitted to the hospital, receives general anesthesia and, depending on the complexity of the surgery, may be discharged on the same day or after a short hospital stay.
The surgical process begins with a small incision in the area to be examined or treated. The surgeon then inserts the laparoscope, a thin tube equipped with fiber optics, through this incision.
This device allows the visualization of the internal organs and facilitates the performance of diagnostic or therapeutic interventions.
If necessary, other small incisions can be made to insert the surgical instruments.
Interestingly, these instruments are similar to those used in conventional surgery, but are designed to be more delicate.
In the case of abdominal surgeries, carbon dioxide is insufflated into the abdominal cavity to expand it and provide an adequate working field.
The benefits of this technique are numerous. As it is minimally invasive, it causes less surgical trauma and bleeding during the operation.
Consequently, the patient feels less pain after surgery, recovers more quickly and can resume their daily activities and work in less time.
In addition, it leaves smaller scars, reduces the likelihood of infections and the formation of postoperative adhesions.
In addition to its wide application in gynecological surgeries, such as to treat ovarian cysts, tube dilation, ovarian torsion, ectopic pregnancy, and urology, laparoscopy is also useful in joint operations, such as arthroscopies, common in knee surgeries.
Other procedures, such as removal and treatment of uterine prolapse, cystocele (bladder prolapse) or rectocele (rectal prolapse), can also be performed via laparoscopy.
types of laparoscopy
The versatility of laparoscopy makes it a valuable tool in medicine, with two main purposes: diagnosis and therapy.
But, for you to understand even better about this issue, we will detail it below.
In diagnostic laparoscopy, the procedure is performed when there is a need to clarify the cause of a medical condition that requires surgery.
In this context, laparoscopy is used even after the collection of the patient’s clinical history, physical examination, laboratory and radiological examinations.
On the other hand, therapeutic laparoscopy is performed when there is already a previous diagnosis of a disease, such as appendicitis or gallstones, requiring only surgical treatment.
In abdominal procedures, laparoscopy can be used for both diagnosis and treatment of digestive and urinary issues in organs such as the bladder, stomach, liver and intestines.
Indications may include visualization of the digestive system to determine the cause of undetermined abdominal pain, cancer staging, removal of kidney stones, appendix or abdominal hernia, and surgical resection of the bowel.
Laparoscopy is also useful in bariatric surgery, where instead of a large cut of 10 to 20 centimeters, four to seven incisions of 0.5 to 1.2 centimeters each are made, facilitating postoperative recovery.
Gynecological or pelvic laparoscopy
In the field of gynecology, laparoscopy can treat a number of conditions including ovarian cysts, ectopic pregnancy, myomaendometriosis, adhesions, pelvic cancer and removal of the uterus.
In addition, intrauterine problems that previously could only be treated by opening the cavity and uterus, such as polyps, fibroids, synechiae (adhesions of the uterus wall) and uterine malformations, can also be approached through laparoscopy, as stated by the gynecologist .